The Newsletter “Beguines” informs about beguinages and beguines, both traditional and modern. You can also collaborate by sending news to email@example.com
Please, read below the recent News with, between brackets, the date of their sending :
To know the beguinal movement (13-07-2022)
During 2021, I was able to rewrite my book on Beguines, enriching it with information issued from 10 years of studies following the first edition. I was thus able to investigate certain aspects such as the consequences of the Council of Vienne (1311-12) which declared them heretical or answer questions such as whether the beguines had been accused of witchcraft.
Now, to my great satisfaction, the Italian version of this second edition has also been published by Gabrielli Editori, a dynamic publishing house to which I feel very close. The four versions ( EN – ES- FR – IT) are now available to anyone who would learn more about the Beguinal movement. No more excuses … ah … ah … Thanks for helping me to share these information and making them known around you.
Two versions are in ebook format and you will find them by clicking on the title of each: in English The Beguines. Women in search of sanctity within freedom and in Spanish Las beguinas. Mujeres por la libertad. The two others are available on the their publisher’s website:
Les Béguines. Une communauté de femmes libres, Almora, Paris, 2021 and on this web site if you are looking for the Franch ebook ; the two Italian (paper and ebook) are available on Le Beghine. Una storia di donne per la libertà, Gabrielli Editori, 2022.
I apologize to the persons already aware of my commitment for the possible repetition, but believe me, the beguines are still little known and valued even in expert circles, as I was able to see by following the online course of women theology in the last fourth months of 2021.
Thanks to a vision of Julienne de Cornillon
The solemnity of Corpus Domini (or Corpus Christi) occurs on the Thursday of the second week after Pentecost. Like the other Easter feast it is mobile and in this year 2022, it falls on Thursday 16th June. In some countries, however (Italy for example) it is celebrated on the following Sunday. This solemnity, although celebrated today with much less pomp, is one of the main liturgical feast of the Catholic Church, and it is also shared by certain Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches.
The feast of Corpus Domini dates back to the 13th century and must be understood in the climate of the time when the real divine presence in the Eucharist was a subject of contestation and theological conflicts. In 1264, with the Bull Transiturus de hoc mundo, Pope Urban IV extended the celebration of this liturgy to the whole Church. The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist was thus affirmed by devotion, after several years earlier – in 1215 – it had been decreed by Pope Innocent III, with the dogma of transubstantiation.
We owe this solemnity to Julienne de Cornillon or Mont Cornillon (1193-1258). Although she is known as an Augustinian nun, her past as a beguine should not be ignored. Orphaned at a young age, she and her sister Agnes were in fact entrusted to the house of Cornillon, at the entrance to Liège, an open house next to the Premonstratensian abbey of Mont-Cornillon. Julienne will thus be part of a community of beguines dedicated to the care of lepers in the leper colony of Monte Cornillon. Following a vision and after having asked for support from theologians and ecclesiastics, Julienne after insistent requests convinces the bishop of Liège, Robert de Thourotte, and the Archdeacon of Liège, Jacques Pantaléon, to institute this festivity in the diocese of Liège in 1246. After becoming pope with the name of Urban IV, Jacques Pantaleon will extend it to the whole Church. If you would like to know more about the intrepid Julienne, click
Julian of Norwich with us (10-04-2022)
In these terrible, devastating and painful times, I have thought several times about Julian of Norwich (1342 – 1413) and her unshakable optimism, her “All shall be well” that is expressed about twenty times in her Revelations of Divine Love. We might think Julian lived in a time when optimism was easy. But not ! The century in which she lived saw three epidemics of plague, numerous wars and other disasters. Her optimism, while aware of the evil, was nourished by her intimacy with the Divine. Let us listen to her words: “But Jesus, who in this vision informed me of everything I needed, answered me with these words and said:”Sin is inevitable, but all shall be well, and all shall be well and every kind of things shall be well”….And because of the tender love that our Lord has for all those who will be saved, he comforts us immediately and with gentleness, wanting with this to tell us : “It is true that sin is the cause of all this suffering , but all shall be good, and every kind of thing shall be good ” (Chap. 27, p.165 … p.166, Il Libro delle Rivelazioni, Ancora, 1997). We would like to adopt this hope as our own.
This is the meaning of my wishes for a Happy Easter to all of you, readers of the Beguines Newsletter.
I have several times asked experts on Julian and medieval mysticism weather Julian could be considered a beguine. The answer has always been negative: Julian was an anchorite walled up in a cell near the church of Saint Julian and not a beguine. Well, I would like to explain why for me Julian should instead be considered a recluse beguine. You will find my explanation at this link: http://beguines.info/?page_id=2339&lang=en
Visiting Belgian beguinages (14-03-2022)
We are extremely lucky to have in Belgium a person passionate about the beguinages and the beguinal world who regularly organizes visits to the beguinages to tell people about this architectural heritage and the spiritual history that they have hosted for eight centuries.
This person is Graham Keen who deserves the title of Begard. In March, he organized an enjoyable visit to the beguinage of Tongeren with a group from “Le Silex” association. From the report that he kindly sent to me, I will quote only a passage which clearly shows the preparation of these visits: “The beguinage dates from the 13th century, like most beguinages in Flanders. In the 18th century there were about a hundred houses (most are still there) which housed more than 300 beguines. One of the most beautiful 17th century houses contains the beguinage museum, Beghina”.
Graham will organize a visit open to the public on April 19th and 23rd in the beguinages of Lierre and Turnhout. You will find all the information and registration details if you wish to join by clicking on Beguinages April 2022 Feel free to sign up. Thank you dear Graham for sharing these places and this history with anyone interested. And despite the delay, best wishes for your recent birthday anniversary.
Beguines of Medieval Paris (21-02-2022)
I am very grateful to Bernard Delcourt, dearest friend and member of the Beguines Newsletter, for sharing with us his commentaries about 2 books. The both concern the Beguines in the Medieval Paris. Bernard lives in New York, in the Holy Cross monastery, an Anglican community of consecrated men. Here his text.
I have recently read two books on the beguines of Paris which I thoroughly enjoyed in very different ways. One is a scholarly monograph and the other is a historical fiction. The monograph is “The Beguines of Medieval Paris: Gender, Patronage, and Spiritual Authority” by Tanya Stabler (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014) available only in English and the other is “La Nuit des Béguines” (Editions Liana Levi, 2017) also available in Italian.
Tanya Stabler’s monograph is thoroughly researched and documented with extensive notes, index and bibliography. It centers on the Royal Beguinage of Paris founded by King Louis IX of France. But it also covers a population of beguines scattered over a large neighborhood of Paris. It explores several particularities of the Paris beguine population: the economic importance of beguines in the budding silk industry; the relations between beguines and secular clergy studying at the College de Sorbon also founded by Louis IX (the precursor of the Sorbonne University); the relations between beguines and regular clergy (particularly the ascending mendicant orders: Dominicans and Franciscans). Stabler has discovered a lot of interesting material and presents it well.
All this erudition about the Paris Beguines left me hankering for narratives about the lives of individual Beguines. Historiographical research does not enable that to come through. So a few months later, I enjoyed reading what Aline Kiner’s imagination presents as the lives of several remarkable fictional Beguines. La Nuit des Béguines reads as both a bit of a thriller and a psychological drama. Kiner cites Stabler’s monograph in her bibliography and those who have read the monograph can see its imprint on the narrative in many passages.
I’d say these two books make a rewarding pair of explorations in the lives of the Paris Beguines. I hope both books will get translated in more languages of the readers of this newsletter.
Beguinage “La croix aux boeufs” in St Martin du Lac (14-01.2022)
The Beguinage ” La croix aux bœufs”, which you can discover by clicking on http://beguines.info/?page_id=371&lang=en, has just sent me its “Letter of the four seasons“, a pretty expression to say that it is quarterly. This one of winter 2021-22 is indeed the 48th in a consequent story started in 1991 by three pioneers: Sister Thérèse and Fathers Joseph and Maurice. You will find them in the inspiring video: Wisdom on the way https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi17sWcItGc, which takes up the main stages of an “intuition” felt by Sr Thérèse in the cloister in 1986. After 4 years of maturing, here in 1991, the trio can land in Barjols (Var, France) where on December 8, 1996 they inaugurate “At the school of wisdom“. Their passion for the living Word drives them to create this tool of evangelization. Other places of life will follow one another in ecclesial structures which do not offer them the freedom to embody the original intuition. In 2010 after a stopover in Gentinnes (Belgium) from 2004 to 2009, the group returned to France and found a providential place in the Brionnais region. There, the first intuition can be embodied. Since their lifestyle corresponds as closely as possible to the beguinal life which had already interested them, the name of the project will be Beguinage. In a desire for a mystical life, daily life is invented and organized by respecting the different statuses of every participant and it is based on fraternity, spiritual sharing and … autonomy! They are between 10 and 12. Some are residents and others in alliance because of the geographical distance. Today, following deaths and departures, the community has shrunk its membership, but not the force of the Spirit that guides it.
In the winter letter we are struck by the photo of an enchanting sky and the sentence of Dietrich Bonhoeffer probably written from the prison where he was locked up before his execution: “Wonderfully guarded by benevolent forces, we fearlessly await what must happen. God is by our side in the evening and in the morning, and surely will be every new day “.
My wish for 2022 is that these feelings are also ours.
Wishes and calendar 2022 (23-12-2021)
This year as well, after the successful experience of 2021, the association “Nel giardino delle beguine – In the Beguines’ garden” has decided to prepare a calendar with a beguinal focus. The 2022 calendar has the shape of a notebook (21cm x14cm). Each month has a brief history and a photo of one of the 12 selected beguinages. Following the order of presentation they are: Amsterdam, Anderlecht, Breda, Bruges, Brussels, Courtrai, Diest, Ghent, Leuven, Saint-Trond, Tongres, Turnhout. The historical text that presents each beguinage is a summary that I have prepared starting from the magnificent text by Pascal Majérus “Ces femmes qu’on dit béguines” where are gathered all the places, known at the time of the research (1997), which hosted in Belgium one or more beguinal communities. These writings have been my specific contribution as member of the Giardino. Then, everything was entrusted to Noemi, Lucia and Martina who did the rest. The calendar is now available and already circulating in the Mantua area.
In its three years of life “Nel giardino delle beghine” has shown an incredible vitality which you can realize by going to the site https://nelgiardinodellebeghine.it/ and on its own Youtube channel https://www.youtube. com / channel / UCOWRygblV1k3Vg1kSlEghGQ where Alessia diligently inserts the recordings of the meetings that are proposed not only to the members of the Giardino, but to every woman and man desiring to recreate a new symbolic-cultural-social order beyond the patriarchy. The women of the Giardino have found in the beguines, the first women in Western history to have a social status of independence from males, their inspiration and nourish it with fervor. “The beguines of yesterday, women who send light and strength to inhabit today’s troubled time by daring creativity, beauty, freedom that push us further in the continuity of the journey“, as we read on the website of the Giardino. To you of the Giardino and to the readers of the Beguines Newsletter best wishes for a Merry Christmas and a new year with the boundless confidence of Julian of Norwich, who never stopped saying that in the end “all shall be well“.
Promenade in Ghent (28-11-2021)
Graham Keen, whom I call the “Bégard” because of his great enthusiasm for the beguinal world, is also, to my knowledge, the best guide for the beguinages in Belgium. He regularly accompanies groups to visit them. In October he was in Ghent with members of Le Silex association. You can read in GAND by Graham the full report in French of this enjoyable “expedition”. In March 2022, Graham has already planned a visit to the beguinages of Lierre and Turnhout. Interested parties can write to him at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ghent is the city of beguines par excellence, with three imposing beguinages. Indeed the two that were already established in the city in the 14th century accounted for 1000 beguines out of a population of 64,000 inhabitants. Those two, the (not so) ‘small’ beguinage dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Notre-Dame-Aux-Foins) and the large one dedicated to Saint Elizabeth, were both founded in 1234. The third, the great beguinage of Mont-Saint-Amand, was built much later by Duke Englebert d’Arenberg, the new owner, with the beguines accounting for a third of the invested capital. It was inaugurated with great pomp in 1874. A specific feature of the beguinal history in Ghent is the large number of beguines that have survived over the centuries. In 1825 there were still 930 and 773 in 1912. There were more than 130 in 1955, 9 in 1990 and 3 in 1996. Among the honours of the beguinal history of Ghent is its fame, which led King Saint-Louis to visit the great beguinage in November 1255, in anticipation of the one he later founded in Paris. Furthermore, the gold medal was conferred on the beguines of Ghent for their intrepid presence during the cholera epidemic of 1830.
If you want to sample the nice visit of Graham and his group in the two beguinages visited in October, here are two videos worth watching.
Enjoy the visit.
https://www.begijnhofbreda.nl/begijnhof-gent/ (Sainte Élisabeth)
My “beguinal” books (5-11-2021)
The French edition of my new book on the Beguinal movement with the title: Les béguines. Une communauté de femmes libres is coming out in these days. The Almora publishing house, which has spirituality among its editorial focuses, stayed in my mind for publishing Jean-Yves Leloup’s book on Marguerite Porete. Following a first contact I made, to my great joy Almora quickly accepted my proposal and expressed a great deal of courtesy and professionalism in our collaboration. Starting from November 6, the book can be requested in bookstores or purchased online, both as an ebook and as a paper book, on the publisher’s website: https://www.almora.fr/
In this effort carried out in the isolation of the pandemic, I integrated what I have collected over many years of readings from academic studies and texts by experts of the Beguinal movement. It is a popular synthesis of the current knowledge on the beguines and also on the begards. This book also answers to several questions that were asked to me during my presentation meetings, such as if the beguines were the first feminist movement and if they were also considered being witches. In summary, it is a historical well-founded rehabilitation of this fruitful movement that has marked an irruption of freedom in the history of genre and even beyond. This same book already exists as an ebook in English and Spanish and soon also in Italian by Gabrielli Editori.
Thank you very much for spreading this news and supporting these editorial initiatives.
Maister Eckhart & Beguines (29-09-2021)
This new book is only available from few months. It piques our interest as it tries to shed light on the possible points in common, exchanges and reciprocal influences between Maister Eckhart and each one of three most famous beguines: Marguerite, Hadewijch and Mechthild (order chosen in the book). The author is Riwanon Rimlinger. There is no presentation of her on the 4th of cover, but from further research on the web we know that in 2017 she discussed a doctoral thesis in theology at the Université de Lorraine in co-tutelage with the Universität Augsburg entitled “La relecture de Marguerite Porete, de Mechthilde de Magdebourg et de Hadewijch d’Anvers par Maitre Eckhart“. This publication is therefore born from a courageous effort to make the 432 pages of the thesis accessible to a non-academic public, although certainly not without the necessary solid foundations to access it.
This book achieved the goal it had set itself, which was to highlight the common themes between Eckhart and each of the three beguines, their shared cultural roots, their similarities and differences. The subject has been treated with accurate research supported by a large literature little known to me because of the language. Thus it enriched my continuous studies on the Beguinal movement with other information. Specifically, after having presented the beguines, their relations with the Dominican Order and the figure of Master Eckhart, the author explored with historiographic rigor the possible contacts of the Master with the beguinages related to the three beguines and the convergence of their mystical intuitions.
Not being able to summarize here in a few lines 150-pages, I suggest those who know French to read what is a really interesting study book. Despite being demanding, it is comprehensible and not boring.
Congratulations to the new PhD.
Beguinages today in Europe (25-08-2021)
Are there today modern beguinages in Europe? This question is often asked to me. I would try to answer, although very briefly, while suggesting to consult the website www.beguines.info, and in particular the beguinal movement today, for more information. I am also counting on your possible information to complete mine. I point out that historical beguinages which maintain today a residential function are not included in my answer.
To my knowledge, there are three modern experiences in Belgium: the oldest petit béguinage de La Lauzelle (since 1995), le béguinage de Béthel (2011) and another one, Saint Barbe, under construction, which will be fully active in 2024. In Ireland, An Croi (the heart, in Gaelic) was officially born in 2017. Germany is the country in Europe with the most important feminine presence: more than 500 women live in nearly twenty beguinages coordinated by their federation www.dachverband-der-beginen.de, but there are also other independent ones such as the Beginenhof in Berlin. Unfortunately, my lack of knowledge of German does not allow me to provide you with more information about them.
An interesting phenomenon occurs in France, where the beguinages multiply and are distinguished by the initial inspiration of greater or lesser community commitment among the residents and by the more or less profit / non-profit character of the promotor. In both cases, they converge on the target population, i.e. the third Age. The leader of the most committed proposals has been, since 2014, Vivre-en-beguinage which, with its 5 current beguinages, states that there will be dozens of them in the years to come offering to the elderly a framework of life animated by solidarity and autonomy, essential ingredients for a good aging. The other proposal, that has only the name of beguinage, is organised by private companies, such as the Korian group that is active in 7 European countries and already present in the bussiness of care and the elderly, and wants to promote the beguinage option through its Ages & Vie branch. Thirty projects have already been completed between 2008 and 2017, and the summit of the group is planning about 300 by 2024. These “beguinages” are ground floor buildings with 8 individual rooms that give access to both a garden and a space community (dining room?) and which make use of the constant presence of a salaried worker who lodge on site.
In conclusion, the beguines is still inspiring and the third age has become, like health, one of the fields in which business surely grows.
Tongeren beguinage visited by Graham Keen (04-08-2021)
(Thanks to Graham Keen for this great report that you can read in full at http://beguines.info/?page_id=3141&lang=en)
Last week I visited the beguinage in Tongeren. What a delightful surprise.
The beguinage is in a quiet part of town but still within the old town walls. Indeed the area along the river Jeker has been renovated, making a delightful walk with a view of several of the main buildings: the brewery, the Cloth Makers’ Tower, the infirmary and the St Ursula Chapel . But the best part was my visit of the Beghina museum. This interesting collection of objects and a film about several beguinages is housed in a beautiful building, dating back to 1660. The museum stands next to another fine renaissance building. Mr Vandersmissen had this house built for his two twin daughters and it is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the town. It survived the fire in 1677 and also the revolutionary French wave of destruction at the end of the 18th century. I read that the beguines were spared by bribing the French authorities but I haven’t yet found out what form the bribe took ! The museum building still has the enclosed garden with a high wall separating the house from the street, this being typical of the more wealthy properties in Flemish beguinages. This charming garden has a statue which one assumes is a beguine.
All the houses in Tongeren beguinage,including the museum, are privately owned as opposed to many other beguinages, where the CPAS / OCMW (city social authority) has remained in charge since the French revolution. Today the beguinage in Tongeren comprises 8 streets. In its heyday at the beginning of 18th century there were nearly 100 buildings housing over 300 beguines. In 1995 the Franciscan monastery (Frères Mineurs) was taken over by Poverello, a social institution founded in the 1970’s by a Flemish doctor. Today they serve 60 meals a day to the needy. I read that the town, who owns the St Catherine’s church (currently closed), has sold it to Poverello for 1 Euro. The town will finance most of the restoration and Poverello will look after it as a place for prayer and cultural activities. Most other buildings are in good condition. For example the St Ursula chapel has been renovated for receptions, exhibitions and other special events. Next door is the former infirmary, today a restaurant simply called “de Infirmerie”. The former slaughterhouse (abattoir) has been converted into a youth hostel. The former Agnetenklooster, just outside the beguinage, was a monastery founded in 15th century, rebuilt in 16th, now converted into a bed and breakfast hostel.
The Flemish often mix the old and the new with taste.
Book of Hours (21-7-2021)
I thank very much Eileen Engel for sending such interesting news on a manuscript dated on the 15th century (1445-1460).
It is a “Book of Hours”, also known as a psalter, a book of prayers for daily life.They often contained the psalms, prayers, liturgical calendars, and lists of saints and feast days. Often written in a vernacular language, most beguines memorized their contents. Illustrations in them were sometimes used as guideposts. Some were lavishly decorated, while others had folk art or few if any, pictures at all. You can see the mentionned book by going to the website: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15799coll58/id/48884
This special edition stems from a research project managed by Sabina Zonno at the University of Southern California (USC). The precious manuscript once belonged to a Beguine who probably lived in the Beguinage of St. Elisabeth in Ghent, Belgium, and who at the moment of her death, as in use, probably left it to another Beguine. By going to the site, you can browse the 196 pages, with their precious miniatures. A $50,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities ’Office of Digital Humanities will allow the researchers to take thousands of pictures and working with the USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, design a three-dimensional experience allowing viewers to turn pages and truly merge the reader with the book’s surroundings.
Saint Barbe Beguinage (03-05-2021)
Just as the beguinal movement sprang up in the past in the diocese of Liège, so today a new beguinal bud is starting to blossom in that region: the beguinage of Saint Barbe. Stephan Delfanne is an engineer and expert in the renovation of rural properties. He and his wife Marie-Claire are working to achieve a truly fascinating beguinal experience for senior citizens. It combines many elements that they would like to achieve in everyday life and which are inspired by the encyclical “Laudato si”. They are starting with the renovation of a farm which appears in the inventory of Walloon Heritage, located in an area of environmental beauty and archaeological interest, 9 independent and autonomous housing units are being built. The co-ownership which is envisaged will also provide agreement on internal regulations including shared values such as community life in an ecumenical spirit, frugality, respect for the environment and many other aspects that you can discover in the site: https://demeuresetlieux.wixsite.com/beguinage-ste-barbe
Sainte Barbe is protector of the workers of quarries,which are found in the region, and will be the patron of this future beguinage which will also have a chapel. A statue of her has already been recovered from a closed church in Molenbeek. At the end of 2021 the project will begin. The timing will depend on the development of sales, but everything will be fully operational by 2024. Interested parties should note that six units are still available today. Contact friendly Stephan on: email@example.com
I really appreciated his competence and enthusiasm during our zoom meeting on Tuesday 20th April . Thank you and good luck.
Marcella Pattiyn four-handed (14-04-2021)
Marcella Pattijn, who died in Courtrai on 14th April 2013, was the last “historical” beguine in the world. With her ended the beguinal movement born in the diocese of Liège at the end of the 12th century. A movement that has known many variations over the centuries according to the environments of life and the historical transitions. Today it is perhaps manifesting itself in other ways.
I personally met this lovely beguine when she was still living in the beguinage of Courtrai, before moving into a retirement home in the same city. Although she was almost blind, she retained her good humour and her passion for the accordion. There is a book in Flemish dedicated to her: Claude Bouckaert, De Laatste der Begijnen, Uitgeverij Groeninghe, 2000. The beguinage of Breda has on its website a short video commemorating 70 years of her beguinal promises. You can see her still playing the accordion. https://www.begijnhofbreda.nl/laatste-twee-traditionele-begijnen-nederland-en-belgie/
Graham also writes
Marcella Pattyn was still young when she perceived her desire for a consecrated life. She dreamed of joining a religious order of missionaries. But she was almost blind, and still wanted to work. She realized that this would hardly be possible in an ordinary religious community.She encountered several refusals, then with the help of one of her aunts in 1941, at the age of 21, she was able to enter one of the Flemish beguinages, that of Mont-Saint-Amand near Ghent. She later joined, in 1960, the beguinage of Kortrijk (Courtrai).
Like the other beguines, she dedicated her life to prayer and service, in chastity but without taking religious vows. Her near-blindness did not prevent her from working: she knitted baby clothes and worked on the manual loom, with the basket of wool next to her chair, chatting and laughing with the other beguines.
Besides prayer and work, Marcella Pattyn was a musician. She played the piano, organ and accordion. She led this life of a beguine until 2008 when she retired aged 87, and moved to the Sint-Jozef retirement home in Kortrijk, where she died on 14th April 2013.
New English edition (08-02-2021)
During the pandemic I have found time to write a new edition of my work on the world of the beguines. The information in my previous book actually ended in 2009, while my research continued without stopping. These 10 additional years of study and in-depth research helped me to discover many more important aspects to convey and answers to fundamental questions that I had been asked. The new editions in French and Italian will appear during this year 2021 and the one in Spanish is already available. Today Graham and I are happy to announce the publication of the English version. You will find it on the following link: https://www.amazon.com/Beguines-search-sanctity-within-freedom-ebook/dp/B00HWFFINK/ref=sr_1_3?dchild=1&keywords=silvana+panciera&qid=1612793261&s=books&sr=1-3
But who is Graham? you will probably ask yourself. He is, dare I say, the Angel translator of the new edition from French to English. He is most valuable, because he generously agreed to translate this book out of his interest for the beguines and for the sake of their historical rehabilitation. We are really on the same wavelength. He is British and has been living in Brussels for more than 40 years. Since his retirement he has been deeply involved in the world of the beguines, to the point of having visited all the beguinages in Belgium, and taken several groups to visit them, which he plans to continue when circumstances permit. He has contacts with the two modern beguinages in Belgium: the small beguinage of La Lauzelle in Louvain-La-Neuve and the beguinage of Béthel in Brussels.
Graham is spurred on by his ecumenical faith and, like me, met the beguines through cultural connections (a slideshow from a friend in his case, an exhibition in my case), and since then he has continued discovering their spiritual power. and their fascinating history. Thanks Graham.