Beguines gallery

In Breda beguinage

Whether they are famous or not, in this repertoire all the beguines I’ve encountered are here mentioned. We want to pay tribute to all these weavers of the beguinal  movement.

Sometimes the traits of their vocation are inaccurate or may change with time, because life itself is modifiable and the beguinal choice offers multiple ways of living. In addition, lay and religious elements intertwine in beguinal life, and ecclesiastical pressures are not absent

A short biography of each of them is (will be) presented and whenever possible a blue link refers to a wider description of their life. I have written in red the traits that allow us to include them among the beguines or near the beguinal movement.

Both traditional and modern beguines, but only the dead ones, are remembered, because they all belong to the same history. The list will always be incomplete because the memory is still being reconstructed, but with the women whom we find  here, we are really in good company.
Here they are:

Agnès d’ANTHÉE (XIVe)

Aleydis VAN KAMERIJK  ( de CAMBRAI ) (+1235)

Alyt BAKE ( 1415-1455 )

Angela da FOLIGNO (1248-1309)

Angelica BONFANTINI (+1244)

Angelina di MONTEGIOVE (1357-1435)

Anna VAN SCHRIECK (Anversa, + 1688)

Anna CORDEYS (Dienst e Lovanio, +1720)

Béatrice de NAZARETH(+/-1200-1268)

BLOMARDINNE (+ 1355)

Caterina da BOLOGNA (1413-1463)

Cecilia FERRAZZI(1609 – 1684)

Chiara da MONTEFALCO (1268-1308)

Chiara da RIMINI (1282-1346)

Criste TSFLPGHELEERE (XVe )

Christina EBNER (1277-1356)

Cristina di MARKYATE (1096-1115)

Christine COUCKE (XVe)

Christine de SINT-TRUIDEN (+/- 1160-1224)

Christine de STOMMELN (1242-1312) (de Stumbele ?)

Clusin ou Claesinne NIEUWLANT (Gent, + 1611)

COLETTE (+/- 1381-1447)

Dorothée de MONTAU (1347-1394)

Douceline de DIGNE(+/-1214/15 et 1274)

Elizabeth de BERG (XIIIe)

Sainte Elisabeth d’HONGRIE

Elisabeth de SPALBEEK (1246–1304)

Elisabeth de THURINGE (1207-1231)

Eve de SAINT MARTIN (1190-1265)

Francesca ROMANA al secolo Ceccolella Bussi , (+1440),

Gertrude RICKELDEYof ORTENBERG (+ 1335) and Heilke of STAUFENBERG (+ dopo il 1335).

Gertrude VAN OOSTEN(+ 1358)

HADEWIJCH (+1250 ca)

Ida of GORSLEEUW (+ dopo il 1262)

Ida van LEEUW (+ 1260 ca)

Ida de LOUVAIN + 1300

Ida de NIVELLES (1197-1232)

Isabelle DEWIT (XVIIIe)

Ivana CERESA (1942-2009)

Ivette ou Jutta de HUY (1157-1228)

Jeanne d’ARC (1412-1431)

Joan d’ANTHÉE (XIVe)

Julienne de CORNILLON (1193-1258)

Julienne de NORWICH (1342 – 1413)

Jutta de LOOZ (ou de Huy) (+ 1227)

KATELINE (XIVe)

Katherina VANDER HULST (XVe)

KATREI Soeur (XIVe)

Linke DOBBE (XVIe)

Lutgarde de TREVES (+1231)

Lydwine de SCHIEDAM (1380-1433)

Margherita di CORTONA

Maria Bendetta di CARIGNANOe Maria Angela CANAL (XV° secolo)

Maria VAN HOUT (+1547

Marie di GREZ(+1271)

Marie d’OIGNIES (1177-1213)

Marie PETYT (1623-1677)

Marcella PATTIJN (1920- 2013)

Marcella VAN HOECKE (1908-2008)

Margherita d’ARLON (+1414)

Marguerite PORETE (+1310)

Marguerite d’YPRES (+1234 o 37)

MATTEKEN (XVe)

Mechthild de MAGDEBURG (1208/10 – 1282)

Odile de LIÈGE (+1220)

Philippinne de PORCELLET (Marsiglia)

Rita da CASCIA (1381-1457)

Romana GUARNIERI (1913-2004)

Sofia del fu BARTOLO

SPARRONE (Aix en Provence)

Uda (o Oda) da THORENBAIS (XIIIe)

Ysabiaus de WARLAING (XIVe)

Abbaye de Fontevraud

Angelica BONFANTINI (+1244)
Around the year 1190, Angelica decides to leave her wealthy family (Father Caicle of Bonfantino and her mother Bologna) and retires as a hermit on a land of the Colle della Guardia offered by her family. In the succeeding years a community is formed and in 1194, the bishop of Bologna, Gerardo Ghisla, on the order of Celestine III, places the first stone of the Church of San Luca.
Can we consider Angelica like a beguine ? In my opinion, yes. In fact, in “101 donne che hanno fatto grande Bologna – 101 women who have done Bologna great ” (Newton Comptoir Editori, 2012), Serena Bersani says : “It is not clear in which area of ​​religious institutions Angelica has been placed. Certainly she did not make vows for a certain rule, but she was a woman who had converted to religious life, voted to hermitage and after to the constitution of a coenobitic community form. Even though she did not belong to an institutionalized religious structure, she always had the approval of the apostolic office and of the Bishop of Bologna. “(P.25) It is also reported that after received the land donated by her mother, two years later Angelica decided to give it to the canons of Santa Maria di Reno “to reserve the usufruct to life in exchange they helped to build the church and the monastery where they would then host later.” The act was formalized in front of a notary on July 30, 1192. However, litigations started with the canons and so Angelica managed to get them started thanks to a papal Bull. The possessions passed under the jurisdiction of the Holy See. After her father died, her mother bought other land on the hill and her example was imitated by other Bologna’s benefactors. At the death of Angelica, quite old, in 1244, the church and the monastery were already well-established and ready to transform from a hermitic community to a monastic community.

Angelina da MONTEGIOVE (1357-1435)
by Anna Clotilde FILANNINO

Anna Clotilde Filannino devant le tableau de la
Bienheureuse Angelina da Montegiove

Blessed Angelina da Montegiove is a woman from the region of Umbria, who lived between the century XIV and XV, known as the founder of the Third Cloistered Franciscan Order. In reality she believed in the possibility of living a form of consecrated alternative to the monastic life. She believed in it and she obtained an official recognition, allowing not only herself and her companions but also many women to come out of illegality, which had been the condition of many for decades. This paved the way for other women who could not be set off on a path of consecration, due to the limited number of entrances to monasteries. The latter ones are largely women of Umbria who lived a similar experience of Angelina, in Foligno, Assisi and Todi, while supporting each other. In the following decades, groups of women from other cities of central Italy – Florence, Ascoli, Viterbo and later Perugia and L’Aquila – will join them and their relationship will become more intense to the point of deciding to found a congregation in 1428, the Congregation of Foligno. Angelina becomes the general minister with the authority to visit, exhort, transfer the sisters from one sorority to another. We are faced with a reality of women who wish to live intensely their spiritual life, similar to that found in the beguinages of Flemish Europe. Their experience in Italy, after a few decades from the approval, was repeatedly hindered because it was considered in contrast with the attempt of reform carried out by the second generation of Franciscan Observers and it took the humble tenacity of Angelina and her sisters not to succumb and keep faith with the happy intuition they were bearers of.

HADEWIJCH (+1250 ca)
by Alessia VALLARSA

Hadewijch by Christine Daine,
Clarisse de Belgique

The historical figure of Hadewijch is still surrounded by uncertainty: her work offers few bibliographical references and there is no “Vita” (biography) dedicated to her. The Brabantine language of her writings places her in the Duchy of Brabant, in Antwerp according to a late tradition or perhaps in Brussels. It is thought she was active around the mid-thirteenth century, but   others place her  at the beginning of the XIV century. Only her work remains: 31 letters in prose and 16 in rimes, 45 songs and 14 visions. In Dutch literature Hadewijch plays a fundamental role since she is one of the first authors to make prose and mysticism, an exception in this literature. Women-mystic-prose: it has been emphasized that this link is not a coincidence. Hadewijch spoke of God not in Latin but in vulgar Dutch. By a creative and daring operation the language of mysticism came out of the world of clergy and was reformulated into vulgar. Most probably Hadewijich was a beguine, a form of religious life sprung up within the vast women’s religious movement, which experienced an extraordinary flowering in the regions of Brabant and in the diocese of Liège. H. Grundmann has shown that the birth of spiritual literature in the vernacular is directly related to the extension of this feminine movement. From her writings it emerges that Hadewijch was a guide of a group of friends whom she exhorted to live radically for the Minne, the noble Love, the only theme of her life, metaphor of the relationship between lovers, therefore also between a woman and God. So she wrote for these friends letters, songs and visions, works that manifest her familiarity with the Bible, the patristic, the mystics of the twelfth century and the lyrics of the courtly love that she adopted, especially for the  songs, the style and the themes and, as recent discovered, the melodies: she spoke of the courtly love to speak about the mystical love. So she addresses a friend: “Try that nothing less than minne is enough for you

Ivana CERESA (1942-2009)

Ivana Ceresa was born in 1942 in the province of Mantua (Italy), where she will then live until her death in 2009. Since her high school, she wanted to be a theologian, but she must wait after the Second Vatican Council to access the theological faculty, inaccessible to women until the 1970s. She became then a literary teacher and only later a theologian. Her book “Dire Dio al femminile” (Saying God in the Women way) was for many women a stimulus to become conscious of gender issues and of the need for an exit from the patriarchate. Ivana called herself a beguine and said, “I’m the beguine of every age, because I’m in a way in incognito … I love in the manner of beguines, in a nonconformist and a bit transgressive” (Ivana Ceresa, Utopia and conserves it, Three Moon Editions, Mantua, 2011). Her friendship with Romana Guarneri, the historian who identified in 1946 the book of Marguerite Porete, and with Luisa Muraro, a great scholar of the beguinal movement, reinforced this identification that led her to say “to be a beguine today is to continue the choice of these women, that is to live in the world without being in the world“.  In 1996, Ivana achieved her most important realization: the foundation of the Order of Sorority of Mary SS. Coronation, recognized by the Bishop of Mantua, Egidio Caporello, in March 18, 2002. In the introduction to the Rule of Order of Sorority, Ivana refers to the beguines of the North and how they expressed strong female freedom with their autonomy and independence towards ecclesiastical and secular control. For the same raison, also Sorority states: “We are women called by the Holy Spirit to make visible the presence of women in the Church and in the world“.

Soeur KATREI (XIVe siècle)

This is the story of Sister Katrei, (spiritual, ndt) daughter of Meister Eckhart in Strasbourg” (p.11). With this enigmatic incipit, it opens a text of the fourteenth century, written in medium-high German, included by Franz Pfeiffer in the volume dedicated to Master Eckhart. But who is sister Katrei ? Marco Vannini, editor of the Italian edition, assumes that most likely Katrei was a beguine, very inspired by the thought of Eckhart. Even such a humble girl, she eventually surpassed the Master for the radicality of her conclusions. Perhaps because he was more than her “worried about saving compatibility of his tought with the ecclesiastical institution” (p.11) Vannini argues.
Katrei is considered a beguine because she could operate her choices freely, move her residence and be independent of any authority. The name sister perhaps intervenes to indicate her belonging to the Free Spirit movement, with which Eckhart also had contacts. For this he was accused of heresy and called to a trial, but he died during the journey to go and justify himself to the pope.
At that time there were 85 houses of beguines in Strasbourg and 169 in Cologne. These places were well known and frequented by Master Eckhart, especially during his position as Vicar General of the Order from 1314 in Strasbourg, but also in Cologne where he tought in the Dominican Studium perhaps starting from 1324.
In her profound spiritual experience, collected in the above mentioned manuscript, Katrei arrives at the conclusion of being able to achieve a stable condition of grace (bewerung in German), of permanent union with God. Not the God (gotten) determined in the ways of the various religions, but the unnamed Deity (gotheit), bottomless bottom, which no one can not appropriate. This happens through “that complete disappearance … or that complete annihilation that necessarily involves the bonds and religious contents” (p.17).
From : Pseudo Master Eckhart, Diventare Dio. L’insegnamento di sorella Katrei, a cura  di Marco Vannini, Adelphi edizioni, Milano, 2006

Marie d’OIGNIES (1177-1213)

Marie was born in Nivelles (Belgium) in 1177 by wealthy parents, who became later disappointed for her indifference towards rich clothes and ornaments. Although she well knows the Cistercian world, she does not want to become a monastic nun. At 14, her parents forced her to marry Jean, also from a wealthy family of Nivelles. Immediately after marriage, finally out of parental control, she initiates intense ascetic practices of fasting, prayer and charity. After a few months from the marriage, Jean lives a conversion that brings him closer to God. Together they decide for an “apostolic life” that also involved a conjugal relationship as brother and sister, without sexual relations. Then, they leave their home in Nivelles and join an informal community of apostolic life not far away, in Willambroux, near a leper colony. They will remain there for 12 (or maybe 15) years. Jean’s brother, Guido, is chaplain of the local church and spiritual director of this community.
Together with the other members of the community, Marie and Jean nurture and care for lepers, but also for others ill or poor, instruct children, offer religious education and pray together.
Mary becomes a “living saint”;  many people talk about her and want to see her. She has a reputation for effective prayers, she can read in people’s souls, recognizing also the state of salvation or sin and invites people to repent. Too disturbed by these crowds coming from the city and surroundings, in 1207 she moved to Oignies near the priory of St Nicolas, living as a recluse in a cell next to the choir of the church.  It was a life of fasts and prayers, but also offering spiritual advices. In 1208, she meets Jacques de Vitry, a canon coming from Paris to meet her and eventually become her disciple. Marie urges him to return to Paris, where he is ordained in 1210, and then to come back to Oignies to serve the lepers and the needy. Mary becomes his “magistra”, inaugurating a deep spiritual friendship, in which they were mutual guides to each other. Marie is also remembered for her preaching, a practice adopted by the beguines, at least before the prohibition of Gregory IX in 1228, and for her gift of prophecy. She is known for her incredible fasts, the last of which lasts for 53 days. At her death at the age of 36 she weighed 33kg. However, contrary to what is sometimes read, she did not receive the stigmata. She is so honored that she is considered the “first beguine”, given that around her the first historically established beguinal community was formed. She died on 23 June 1213, the day when she is commemorated as a Blessed in the Roman Martyrology. Each year, on the first Sunday after June 23, a procession with the urn of her relics leaves from the church of Notre Dame de Oignies
After her death there was much talk about her: it seems that even Francis of Assisi was one of his admirers and that pope Gregory IX (1227-1241), “stopped cursing only by wearing the finger of Maria d’Oignies around his neck“, as curiously reported by Chiara Frugoni (Vita di un uomo: Francesco d’Assisi (Life of a man: Francis of Assisi), Einaudi, p.44).

Rita da Cascia (1381-1457)

The first image of the Saint Rita (1457)

Wife, mother, then widow and finally Augustinian nun: these are the successive stages that have been used to describe the life of Saint Rita da Cascia. However, the careful study of the scholar Lucetta Scaraffia advances a new hypothesis on the fact that the Monastery of Saint Mary Magdalen, where Rita found hospitality, was firstly rather a beguinal house. She writes “Even the monastery of Saint Mary Magdalen, probably, was a house of “bizzoche” [Italian word for beguines in that region] then passed under the control of the Augustinians. The very name that refers to a life of penance rather than withdrawal from the world, and the presence of a female confraternity of the Santissima Annunziata in the church of the same name, formerly linked to the monastery, seem to confirm this hypothesis”. Also, the historian Lucetta states that “Although the visitors to the Monastery in 1465 refer of a Augustinian rule, we know that, in many cases, such a reference constituted a mere regularity clause, necessary for the bishop’s approval, but did not correspond to a real dependence on this institution. Similar cases have been found in the Spoleto valley, where, out of thirteen female foundations built at the end of the 13th century, only seven were institutionalized by the bishops, six of which declared themselves to have assumed the Augustinian rule, but even after the Council of Trento the apostolic visitors denounced the beguinal state of the women who were part of them“. (From Lucetta Scaraffia, La santa degli impossibili, Vita e pensiero, Milano, 2014, p.108-109).

Romana GUARNIERI (1913-2004)
by Luisa MURARO

Romana Guarnieri

Romana was a passionate and very generous scholar, as all those who approached her recognize. Speaking with her I realized almost immediately that she was the depositary of the richness of the mystical feminine theology which I had just glimpsed. That is the richness of an admirable season of European civilization, between the Low Middle Ages and the dawn of modernity. Romana had accumulated them over the years, assimilated with intimate participation and now placed them at my disposal.
Ours have been a long relation, marked by regular stays in her house, by long conversations and by some extra moenia excursions. Everything was beautiful, nothing was easy, just as it should have be.
At first Romana told me of her friendship with Don Giuseppe De Luca, of her conversion to the Catholic Church and of their intense collaboration in the publishing house that they had founded together, until his death, arrived too early. I learned to know her. She did not appraise from conventional courtesy or from other exteriorities, but from the interiority. She did so, however, remaining connected to her counter part, as proof of a strength and a calm that nourished each other. Romana had a special gift, she loved souls. Out of the subjects of study, if she was not solicited, she did not speak about religion but always had a wide window open to the sky. At the centre of her conversion and her faith, Romana put the friendship and love of Jesus, just as she called it. When questioned by me, she said that they were superior to the friendship and love that bound her to Don Giuseppe De Luca, the man who made her meet with her Jesus. Without any doubt she had proved her superior fidelity to this supernatural love, in the friendship itself that bound her to the man without ever becoming an attachment nor, much less, an addiction. Yes, she was a free woman and so she was thanks to God. She was a Beguine.
To read the full Italian text sent to us by Luisa Muraro click the following link: Romana Guarnieri testo completo.

Historical beguinages

Enghien

Enghien

Gent, Ste Elisabeth

Gent, Ste Elisabeth

Breda

Breda

Turnhout

Turnhout

Sint Truiden

Sint Truiden

Herentals

Herentals

Today only Belgium still retains a significant number of beguinages and since 1998 thirteen of them have been classified by UNESCO as world heritage of humanity . There are also two in the Netherlands, Amsterdam and Breda, and one in France, in Cambrai, and some traces in French Flanders. The rest is only a reconstruction of history and cartography.

What we commonly call “beguinage” was established in Flanders (now the Netherlands and Belgium) from 1240 as the main community form of beguinal life. It can be seen that where the buguinages have become parishes, they have had more guarantees of continuity. This is one of the reasons why, although the first groups of beguines were born in the diocese of Liège, it is mainly in the Flemish territory of Belgium that there are still important traces.

Leuven
Small béguinage

However, we must remember that the places where beguines lived were various: near a monastery or a leper house, in contiguous houses on the same street, in nearby hermitages up to solitary forms of life in a cell or within their own family and even a wandering life, quickly forbidden by the Church.

Here we present the historical beguinages. As the state of research is very incomplete, the reality of the beguinal world, still too hidden, is certainly superior to that presented here. For Belgium, Germany, Holland, Italy, Spain and Switzerland more information are available underneath. For modern beguines, click on the beguinal movement today.

in Belgium
Leuven – Big beguinage
by Renaud Hanriot

The most recent works of Pascal Majérus have documented 300 beguinages in Belgium, with different connotations between Flanders and Wallonia
For the most part they have been founded between 1230 and 1280, the XIII century is the golden age of the Beguinal movement. About 30 of them survived the destructions. Of these, only two are in Wallonie (Liège and Enghien), two in the Brussels region (Anderlecht and Brussels) and 26 in the Flemish region as follows:
province of Antwerp (Antwerp, Herentals, Hoogstraten, Ivy, Mechelen (great beguinage and little beguinage) and Turnhout;
province of Limburg: Borgloon, Saint-Trond, Tongeren and Hasselt;
province of East Flanders: Aalst, Dendermonde, Ghent (great beguinage, small beguinage and beguinage of Mont-Saint-Amand-lez-Ghent) and Oudenarde;
province of West Flanders: Bruges, Diksmuide and Kortrijk;
province of Flemish Brabant: Aarschot, Diest, Leuven (Great Beguinage and Little Beguinage), Overijse and Tienen.

in France
Belfort

36 beguinages, especially in the north, among which Aire sur la Lys, Bailleul, Beaune (at the service of the famous hospital founded by Nicolas Rolin), Cambrai, Castelnaudary, Douai, Lille and Valenciennes.
In Paris, the famous “Grand beguinage” was founded in 1260 by Louis IX himself and was closed in 1471. It could accommodate about 400 women, widows or young singles. At that time, Paris also counted dozens of other minor beguinages. Today, in this historic place the Lycée Charlemagne sets up, accessible from the street of the same name. Nearby, the old church of Saint Paul and Saint Louis, already existing at the time of the beguinage. Not far from there, “Place de l’Hôtel de Ville”. In 1310, it was called “Place de Grève” and knew the martyrdom at the stake of Marguerite Porete. Nothing remembers this tragic abuse, if not by chance a café at a corner of the square which is called “Café Marguerite”. .

Going to " rue Charlemagne"

Going to " rue Charlemagne"

Entrance of the "Lycée Charlemagne"

Entrance of the "Lycée Charlemagne"

Interior courtyard

Interior courtyard

S.Paul & S. Louis Church

S.Paul & S. Louis Church

Place de l'Hotel de Ville

Place de l'Hotel de Ville

"Café Marguerite"

"Café Marguerite"

Going south, there are Belfort and then Narbonne, Digne and Beziers. The only French beguinage preserved today would be that of Saint-Vaast located at Cambrai.

in Germany
Kartographische Darstellung
by Frank-Michael Reichstein

Beginning in the 80s, the historical beguinage presence was rediscovered thanks to extensive studies and a research methodology per spatial sectors promoted by the Federation. This enabled an impressive number of beguinal locations to be identified, as it can be seen in cartography by Frank-Michael Reichstein, presented on the Federation’s website (Kartographische Darstellung aus: Frank-Michael Reichstein: Das Beginenwesen in Deutschland, Berlin 2001).
The Brita Lieb Interview  published in Neue Wege 7.8.2018 offers an overview of historical research in Germany and other European countries.

 in Holland
Bredea beguinage

37 “hofjes”(courtyards), most of which were destroyed by the Calvinists during the religious conflicts. Only two very beautiful beguinages remain today: Amsterdam and Breda, which have been protected by the Orange-Nassau family.

in Italy
Humiliate, Cassago monastery

Two traditions of “beguinal life” mark Italy: in the North, the Humiliate (especially in Lombardy) and in the Center-Sud a multitude of expressions of secular life spiritually engaged that are covered by the terms of Bizzoche or Pinzocchere. We owe to the studious Romana Guarneri and the historian Mario Sensi the production of many studies on these realities.

in Spain
Altarpiece, church of S.Antoine, Barcelone
by Jaime Huguet, century XV

 

Thanks to the Women’s Research Center of the University of Barcelona we have information on the beguinal movement in Spain and particularly in Catalonia, with the “Reclusorio de Santa Margherita”.

in Switzerland
Basel

According to the medievalist Hans Joachim Schmidt, professor at the University of Freiburg, there were beguinages in the towns of Freiburg (in Romon near Freiburg ” béguines street”), Einsiedeln, Lausanne, Zurich, Berne and Basel, the better known, with 22 houses of beguines in the middle of the XIVth century. It seems that there were even some in the rural places, but historical research is difficult.
(Source: “A vue de l’Esprit” programs, RSR, Swiss-French radio, by Bernard Litzler, from 23 to 27 January 2012).
For further informations, here the very interesting paper Beguines in Switzerland presented by Brita Lieb during the Beguinenreise 2018 in Switzerland (transaltion by Gabi Bierkl) and the text of Martina Wehrli-Johns Beguines and Beghards in the Historical Dictionnary of Switzerland.

Beguinages are also metionned  in Austria, England, Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland and Sweden.

 

Gent – Map of beguinge of Sint Amandsberg

Although survival beguinages have similar spatial features, each one of them has a style of its own. In the smallest one in Anderlecht, next to Saints Peter and Guidon’s church, were lodged eight Beguines. In the largest ones, such as the Ten Hove in Leuven or the Saint Elizabeth’s in Gent, hundreds were lodged. The closeness of a river made textile and wool washing easier.

The spatial model of the beguinage is square or in regular echelon or a combination of both; it is circled by a wall and in some cases also by a moat.

Gent, small Beguinage
Staute of Sint Hubert
by Renaud Hanriot

At the main entry, a doorkeeper Beguine controls the access. At closing time all the Beguines have to be in and all visitors out. The statue of the patron or patroness of the beguinage is usually placed above the main door; at the centre is the church. All around there are one-storey dwellings with a small garden and devotional decorations to give the entrance a personal flavour. The convent is the communal dwelling of those who have no property, and the house of the Grande Dame is generally prominent.

 

Beguinage of Tutnhout, Grotto

One can also find an infirmary, the Table of the Holy Spirit and several elements of devotion scattered here and there: small chapels, Pietà, statues, calvaries, to create an atmosphere of concentration and prayer. If the beguinage makes its living out of agriculture, then sheds and other related buildings can also be found.

Today visitors of a historical beguinage feel a sense of interiority, calm and rest, due, among other things, to the construction standards that made them the first places of concerted urban planning. But if even the stones may have a memory, it is also the spirituality of these women that survives through these vestiges.

 

 

 

On the web

Information sources available on the web, classified by the following 4 categories: 

Articles and books
Blog & Facebook & Twitter
Information web sites
Videos on Youtube

You also might contribute to improve this list, by sending other more bibliography references to: info@beguines.info

Articles and books (in descending chronological order)

Apolline Vranken,  Des béguinages à l’architecture féministe. Comment interroger et subvertir les rapports de genre matérialisés dans l’habitat ?
thesis of Master 2 in architecture, Prix de l’Université des Femmes, 2018

AAVV, Beguinal movement yesterday and today , speeches in various languages presented at the international congress of 23/08/2017, celebrating the 750th anniversary of  Breda beguinage

Milena GARAVAGLIA, Cohousing al femminile, Abitare nei beghinaggi moderni, e-book, Amazon, 2017

Silvana PANCIERA, The Beguines, Kindle Edition, Amazon,2013

Mario Sensi, Storie di Bizzoche tra Umbria e Marche, 1995

E.T, KNUTH, The Beguines, 1992, in  http://www.users.csbsju.edu/~eknuth/index.html

Blog & Facebook & Twitter

Debby VAN LINDEN:  https://begijnhovenqueeste.wordpress.com

Debby VAN LINDEN: https://www.facebook.com/Begijnenhovenqueeste-Community-of-beguine-news-796709140445669/

Debby VAN LINDEN: https://twitter.com/BeguineNews

Sisters of Valley https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?q=sisters%20of%20valley

Information web sites
Belgium

 UNESCO website of the 13 Flemish béguinages in the  World Heritage List

Le jardin du béguinage https://www.habitat-groupe.be/acteurs-logement/le-jardin-du-beguinage

Le petit béguinage de La Lauzelle https://www.habitat-groupe.be/le-petit-beguinage
Interview sur le Petit béguinage réalisée avec l’aide d’Evelyne Simoens

Begijnhof van Turnhout www.vriendenbegijnhof.be (notified by M. Hugo Vanden Bossche)

France

Agence Vivre en béguinage www.vivre-en-beguinage.fr
La Maison des babayagas www.lamaisondesbabayagas.eu

Germany

Foundation  http://www.beginenstiftung.de
Federation  www.dachverband-der-beginen.de
BEGINE – Treffpunkt und Kultur für Frauen e. V. – http://www.begine.de
Beginenhof in Berlin  http://www.beginenwerk.de/
Beginenhot Tännich http://www.beginenhof-thueringen.de/index.html

Holland

Begijnhof van Breda :  http://www.begijnhofbreda.nl/

Italy

Metter in ordine la differenza: l’esperienza della Sororità di Mantova, http://www.iaphitalia.org/images/sororita.pdf

Other in the world

http://begine.wordpress.com/website in German language, really not up to date, that collects experiences of women living together in various places in the world

Sisters of Valley https://www.sistersofcbd.com
Giovanni Drogo, Sister of the Valley  https://www.nextquotidiano.it/suore-cannabis-terapeutica-sister-of-the-valley/

Videos on Youtube

Les Béguines  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bm5EzC-x_MU

Paper texts

Articles  and books in alphabetic order by author. If a link is related to the title, thus a short synthesis or the entire text are available.

You also might contribute to improve this list, by sending other more bibliography references to: info@beguines.info

sr Felicitas, Beguinage of Bruges
A  B  C  D   E   F   G  H I+J+K  L M   N   O   P  Q+R   S   T   U  V+W+Y Z

AAVV, Béguines et béguinages, Archives générales du Royaume, dossier éducatif, 1ère série n.12, Bruxelles, 1994

AAVV, sous la direction d’A.Vauchez, Histoire du chistianisme, Tome 5, Desclée de Brouwer,Paris, 1993

AAVV, Trésors des béguinages, Snoeck-Ducaju et fils, Gand, 1961

AAVV, Un monde de femmes indépendantes. Du XIIe siècle à nos jours. Les béguinages flamands, Guide Luciole pour voyageurs intelligents, Riverside

BARA ocso Wendelein, Hadewijch di Anversa: una vita dedicata all’amore , in La Scala, n° 70; 3 / Luglio – settembre 2016; pagine 157-166.

BARTOLOMEI-ROMAGNOLI Alessandra, DEGL’INNOCENTI Antonella, SANTI Francesco, Scrittrici mistiche europee, Edizioni del Galluzzo, Firenze, 2015

BAUMER-DESPEIGNE Odette, Le mouvement béguinal au XIIIe siècle en Belgique, Frauenfeld – Suisse, 1987, texte polycopié

BEATRICE de Nazareth, 7 degrés d’amour, Ed.Claude Martingay, Génève, 1972.

BEATRICE de Nazareth, I sette modi di amare Dio. Via di Beatrice, edizioni Paoline,2016

BLASUCCI A., CALATI B., GREGOIRE R., La spiritualità del medievo, volume 4 della Storia della spiritualità, Borla

BOUCKAERT Claude, De laatste der begijnen, Uitgeverij Groeninghe, Kortrijk, 2000

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA  ON CD ROM, Beguine & Beghards

COMMODI Bernardo, Beata Angelina da Monegiove, Editrice Velar, Gorle, 2014

CRÉ Marleen,  The Mirror of Simple Souls, in Middle English Revisited: M.N. and the compiler of London, Westminster Cathedral Treasury, MS 4

DE DACIE Pierre, La vie de Christine de Stommeln, suivie de Lettres de Pierre et de Christine, William Blake and Co., 2005

DE JAEGHER Paul, s.j., Anthologie mystique, Desclée De Brouwer, Paris, 1933

DELHEZ Charles (sous la direction de), Collection “Sur la route des saints”  Julienne  De  Cornillon, Ed Fidélité, Namur,1996

DELLA CROCE Giovanna, I mistici del nord, Ed.Studium, Roma, 1981

DELMELLE Joseph, Abbayes et béguinages, Rossel édition, BXL, l973

De VITRY Jacques, Vie de Marie d’Oignies, avec supplément de Thomas Cantimpré, traduction et préface par André Wankenne, Société des études classiques, Namur, 1989

d’HAENENS Albert (avec une équipe du Centre de recherche sur la communication en histoire de l’UCL), Béguinages de Belgique, Ed.Belgique points ARTIS.

DUFRASNE Dieudonné, Donne moderne del Medioevo, Jacabook, 2009; Libres et folles d’amour, éd. Thomas Mols, Bierges, 2007

FESTA Gianni e RAININI Marco (a cura di), L’ordine dei Predicatori. I Domenicani : storia, figure e istituzioni (1216-2016), Editori Laterza, 2016

FICHE et MARTIN, L’histoire de l’Église, Tome 9, Blond & Gay, 1946

FILANNINO Anna Clotilde,  La Contessa con gli zoccoli. Angelina da Montegiove nobile, penitente e francescana, Edizioni Porziuncola, Assisi, 2006 (prefazione di Mario Sensi)

FOZZER Giovanna, Nello specchio di Margherita, Firenze, 2001

GIULIANA  Di  Norwich, Libro delle rivelazioni, Ancora, Milano, 2003

GRUNDMANN, H. Movimenti religiosi nel Medioevo, Il Mulino, Bologna 1980.

GUARNIERI Romana, Amiche mie, beghine, in Ruah, Il femminile di Dio, Piccola biblioteca Millelire, n.14, Stampa alternativa

GUARNIERI Romana, Pinzochere, Dizionario degli Istituti di Perfezione 6 (1980), 1721-49

GUARNIERI Romana, Donne e chiesa tra mistica e istituzioni (secoli XIII-XV), Edizioni di storia e letteratura, Roma, 2004 (pp.417)

GUIDUCCI Armanda, Medioevo inquieto, Sansoni Editori, Firenze, 1990

HADEWIJCH d’Anvers, Ecrits mystiques des Béguines, Ed.Seuil,Paris, l954

HADEWIJCH d’Anvers, Lettres spirituelles, Ed Claude Martingay, Genève,1972

HADEWIJCH d’Anvers, Visions, Collection Les deux rives, O.E.I.L.,  Paris, 1987 ; HADEWIJCH d’Anvers, Les Visions, traduction, présentation et notes de Georgette Epiney-Burgard, éditions Ad.Solem, Genève, 2000

HADEWIJCH d’Anversa, Lettere. Dio amore e amante. Traduzione dal mediolandese di Rocco Berardi, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano), Edizioni Paoline, 1986.

HADEWIJCH d’ANVERSA, Poesie, visioni, lettere, scelte e tradotte da Romana Guarnieri, Marietti Editore, 2000

HOORNAERT  R.(Chanoine), La plus ancienne règle du béguinage de Bruges, Ed.De Plancke, Bruges, l930

HOORNAERT  R.(Chanoine), Le béguinage princier de Bruges, le passé, le présent, Ed. de la vigne, Bruges, 1938

KEULEN Jacqueline, Hadewijch d’Anvers ou la voie glorieuse, Albin Michel, 2011

KINER Aline, La nuit des béguines , éditions Liana Levi, 2017 ; La notte delle beghine, Neri Pozza, 2018

LAFITTE Serge, Les béguines. Insoumises de l’amour divin, dans Le monde des religions, mai-juin, 200

LEMMENS Joseph, Une révolution du monachisme en Belgique, XIIIe-XVIIe siècles, Le cri histoire, Bruxelles, 2009, (chpitre IV : les Béguines et les Beguins)

LES BÉGUINES, Dossier, dans Lumière & Vie, janvier-mars 2013

LESGRETAIN Claire, L’étonnante modernité des béguinages, La Croix, 12 –12-2002

LIEB Brita Begine, Beginen und die werke der Barmherzigkeit, Parzellers Buchverlag, Fulda, 2016

MAISONNEUVE Roland, L’univers visionnaire de Julian of Norwich, O.E.I.L., Paris, 1987

MASSIGNON Louis, Ecrits mémorables, Tome I, Laffont, Paris, 2009

McDONNEL Ernest W., The Beguines and Beghards in Medieval Culture: With Special Emphasis on the Belgian Scene, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1954

McGINN Bernard, Margherita Porete, erotica e dama d’amore, Marietti 1820, Genova, 2017

MAES Pierre, Les béguinages, dans Trésors des béguinages, Catalogue de l’exposition au Musée des Beaux  Arts à Gand,  avril – juin 1961, édité par Snoeck-Ducaju, Gand, l96l.

MAETERLINCK Maurice, L’ornement des noces spirituelles de Ruysbroeck l’admirable, Les éperonniers, Bruxelles, 1990.

MAJERUS Pascal, Fondateur ou formateur ? Maître Guidon et l’établissement des proto-béguines à Nivelles, dans Revue d’histoire religieuse du Brabant-Wallon, Tome 12, 1998

MAJERUS Pascal, A l’ombre des enclos béguinaux, Revue d’histoire religieuse du Braban wallon, 13, 1999, 2, p.144-151.

MAJERUS Pascal, Les béguinages de Belgique : au-delà du mythe, Bulletin de Dexia banque, 2000/3 , p.33-53.

MAJERUS Pascal, Ces femmes qu’on dit béguines. Guides des béguinages de Belgique, Bibliographie et sources d’archives, Archives Générales du Royaume, 1997, Tomes 1 et 2

MARGUERITE PORETE, Le Mirouer des simples ames, edité par R. Guarnieri

MARGARETAE PORETE, Speculum animarum simplicium, cura et studio P. Verdeyen , (CCCM 69), Turnholti, Brepols, 1986.

MATON Gérard, Eléments pour une histoire de la congrégation Notre Dame du Fief, Texte polycopié.

Mc DONNEL E.W., The beguines and beghards in medieval culture, New Brunswick-New Jersey, 1954

MECHTILDE di Magdebourg, La luce fluente della divinità, Ed Giunti, Firenze, 1991

MENESTÒ Enrico (ed.), Le terziarie francescane della beata Angelina: origine e spiritualità. Atti del convegno (Foligno, 13-15 luglio 1995), Centro Ital. di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, Spoleto 1996, pp. VIII-360, tavv. f.t. 47 (Biblioteca del Centro per il collegamento degli studi medievali e umanistici in Umbria 17).

MENS A. (a cura di) Beghine, Begardi, Beghinaggi, Dizionario degli Istituti di Perfezione I, 1165-1180

MOMMAERS Paul, Hadewijch d’Anvers, adapté du néerlandais par Camille Jordens, CERF, Paris, 1994

MURARO Luisa, Il dio delle donne, Mondadori, 2003

MURARO Luisa, Guglielma e Manfreda, La tartaruga edizioni, Milano, 2003

MURARO Luisa, Le amiche di Dio. Margherita e le altre, Orthotes, Salerno-Napoli, 2014

MOROTTI Giuseppe, La riscoperta delle Beghine: dovere di gustizia e stimolo per il nostro tempo, in Appunti di viaggio, n.128, settembre-ottobre 2013

PÈDE René, Béguine set béguinages à Nivelles sous l’ancien régime, dans Revue d’histoire religieuse du Brabant-Wallon, Tome 12, 1998

PANCIERA Silvana, Les beguines, Ed. Fidélité, Namur, 2009 e 2011 ; Le Beghine. Una storia di donne per la libertà, Gabrielli Editori, San Pietro in Cariano, 2011 ; Die Beguine, Octopus, Munster, 2014

PANCIERA Silvana, Marguerite Porete, un’eretica da santificare, in Appunti di viaggio, n.129, novembre-dicembre 2013

PANCIERA Silvana, Vedere con cuore: Mechthild di Magdeburg, in Appunti di viaggio, n.130, gennaio-febbraio 2014

PANCIERA Silvana,Hadewijch o la lirica cortese nelle mistica, in Appunti di viaggio, n. 132, maggio-agosto 2014

PERNOUD Régine, La femme aux temps des cathédrales, Stock, 1980.

PERNOUD Régine, Les saints au Moyen Âge, Plon, 1984

PORETE Marguerite, Lo specchio delle anime semplici, traduzione di Giovanna Fozzer e contributi di Romana Guarneri e Marco Vannini, Ed. San Paolo, 1994

PORETE Marguerite , Nobile amore,  Piemme, casale Monferrato, 1996

PSEUDO-HADEWIJCH, Poesie miste, tradotte da Alessia Vallarsa con la coll. Di Joros Reynaert, Marietti Editore, Genova-Milano, 2007

REATI Fiorenzo,ofm, L’amicizia profumo della vita, Arca, Trento, 2004

RICHIR Luc, Marguerite Porete. Une âme au travail de l’Un , Ed.OUSIA, Bruxelles, 2002

ROQUET Claude-Henri, Petite vie de Ruysbroeck, Desclée de Brouwer, Paris, 2003

RUYSBROEC, Le livre des XII Béguines, œuvres de Ruysbroeck l’admirable, Tome VI, Vroment & C°, Bruxelles, 1938

SALVADORI Patrizia, Travolta da divina passione, dans Medioevo, ottobre 2004

SALVANESCHI  Nino, L’anima del Belgio, Milano, 1927

SALVARANI Renata,  Anime in amore di Dio, in Medioevo, ottobre 2009.

SBROGIÓ Adriana e CAZZANIGA Marco (a cura di), Le nuove beghine, Identità e differenza, Spinea, 2014

SCARAFFIA Lucetta, Spose di Dio, in Ruha, il femminile di Dio, Piccola biblioteca mille lire, n.14, Stampa alternativa

SEBASTIANI Lucia, Da bizzocche a monache in Il monachesimo femminile in Italia dall’alto medioevo al secolo XVII a confronto con l’oggi, a cura di Gabrielle Zarri, Gabrielli Editori, 1977

SENSI Mario, Storie di bizzoche tra Umbia e Marche, prefazione di Romana Guarneri, Edizioni di storia e letteratura, Roma, 1995 ;  Mulieres in Ecclesia . Storie di monache e bizzzoche, 2 tomi, Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, Spoleto, 2010

SIMON Pierre Arnold, Spiritualités et prophétisme dans les traditions judéo-chrétiennes, conférence organisée par Anjali, Bruxelles, 1989

SIMONS Walter, Cities of Ladies. Beguine communities in the Medieval Low Countries. 1200-1565, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001

SOLETI Maria Alessandra, Margherita porete: un processo ancora aperto. Una voce mistica nell’europa tardomedievale, Ed. Il Poligrafo, 2011

SOULAINE Aude, Marguerite Porete, dans Sept semaines avec les maîtres spirituels, Le supplément de La Vie du 4 mars 2004 (propos de Luc Richir)

SWAN Laura, The Wisdom of the Beguines, Bluebridge Press, 2015

TALEB Mohammed, La révolution des béguines, dans Le monde des religions, mars-avril, 2011.

TOMSIN Nathalie, Béguines et béguinages liégeois, Ed.Lecture et liberté, Liège, l984

TRIEST Monika, Grote Madammen. Het Sint-Elisabeth begijnhof van Gent en Sint-Amandsberg. Uitgeverij Averbode, 2011

VALLARSA Alessia, Nell’alta conoscenza del nudo amore. Un testo anonimo della mistica brabantina del XIV secolo: le Mengeldichten 17-29, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca, Università di Padova – Universiteit Gent, 2010

VANDEN BOSSCHE Hugo, Begijnen, begijnhoven en het begijnhof van Turnhout.  De Vrienden van het Begijnhof van Turnhout, Brepols Publishers, Turnhout, 2013

VANDENBROECK Paul (sous la direction), Le jardin clos de l’âme, Société des expositions, Bruxelles, 1994 (catalogue de l’expo du 25 février au 22 mai 1994)

VAN AERSCHOT Suzanne & Michiel Heriman, Les béguinages de Flandre, Service des monuments et sites du Ministère de la Région Flamande, Editions Racine, 2001( a préparé le dossier pour la reconnaissance par l’UNESCO des béguinages comme patrimoine mondial de l’humanité ), édition originale en néerlandais parue chez Uitgeverij Davidsfond, Leuven, 2001

VAUCHEZ André, La spiritualité du Moyen Age occidental, Seuil, Pooint, Paris, l994

VAUCHEZ André, Les laïcs au Moyen Age. Pratiques et expériences religieuses, CERF, Paris, l987

VERDEYEN Paul s.j. Les activités de Ruusbroec à Bruxelles, conférence donnée à Bruxelles le 14 février 1998, texte polycopié

VERRET Sylvain, Béguines et béguinages liégeois, Revue du Clergé français, Tome XXVIII, 1900-l90l.

Beguinal movement today

Marcella Pattjin
Beguinage of Kortrijk

With the death of the last Beguine in the world, Marcella Pattijn, on April 14, 2013, in the Sint-Jozef home in Kortrijk (Belgium), the historical epic of the Beguinal movement comes to an end. The movement sprang up in religious fervor which marked the end of the twelfth century and especially the thirteenth and helped to promote that the eminent medievalist historian Raoul Manselli calls “the second evangelization of Europe“.

Still little known or badly known despite its incisive historical heritage, the movement of the beguines seems to regain breath today through some modern experiences of community life that are inspired by it. Sometimes they refer to it by their denomination as for example the Garden of Beguinage in Etterbeek or the Beginenhof in Berlin. At other times, they integrate into the new experiments one or more dimensions which have characterized the very life of historical Beguines.

We will therefore list by geographical zone the emerging initiatives that are inspired by the Beguinal movement in their daily life:

In Austria
In Belgium
In Germany
In France
In Italy
Others in the word
informations up to dated at July 2017